Press TV Airs Anti-Semitic Interviews to Mark U.S.S. Liberty Anniversary » ADL Blogs
June 12, 2012 15

Press TV Airs Anti-Semitic Interviews to Mark U.S.S. Liberty Anniversary

Press TV, Iran’s English-language pro­pa­ganda tele­vi­sion sta­tion, marked the 45th anniver­sary of the sink­ing of the USS Lib­erty by inter­view­ing anti-Israel and anti-Semitic activists Ali­son Weir, Michael San­tomauro, and J. Bruce Campbell.
Dur­ing the inter­view, which was held on June 8, the trio accused Israel of pur­pose­fully tar­get­ing the U.S. war­ship dur­ing the height of the 1967 Six-Day War. (The cir­cum­stances sur­round­ing the U.S.S. Lib­erty, an Amer­i­can ship that was unin­ten­tion­ally fired on by Israeli forces, has been reg­u­lar fod­der for anti-Israel con­spir­acy the­o­rists.) The inter­view also included sev­eral anti-Semitic state­ments and con­spir­a­to­r­ial accu­sa­tions of Jew­ish con­trol over the U.S. government.
Michael San­tomauro, an anti-Israel blog­ger and Holo­caust denier, alleged that the USS Lib­erty is a cover-up main­tained by U.S.-based Jew­ish sup­port for Israel and the dis­pro­por­tion­ate influ­ence Jews hold over the U.S. gov­ern­ment. Jew­ish inter­est groups, whom San­tomauro claimed pro­vide over the over­whelm­ing amount of fund­ing to U.S. polit­i­cal par­ties, wield their power through what he termed “Jew­ish PAC money.”
J. Bruce Camp­bell, a con­tribut­ing writer for the anti-Semitic web­site, Vet­er­ans Today, claimed that the attack on the Lib­erty was part of a con­spir­a­to­r­ial U.S-Israeli plan he called Oper­a­tion Cyanide, a secret mil­i­tary oper­a­tion that Camp­bell alleges pur­pose­fully sent the Lib­erty to get sunk by the Israelis in order to place blame on Egypt. The desired result, Camp­bell claims, would have been for the U.S. to retal­i­ate against Egypt and to “drop nuclear bombs on Cairo and Alexan­dria.” Camp­bell asserted that this was ordered by the U.S. to assist Israel in cre­at­ing “great [sic] Israel stretch­ing from the Nile to Euphrates rivers.”
When asked by the host whether he agrees that Israel con­trols the U.S. gov­ern­ment, Camp­bell responded, “I would say the Jews in Amer­ica [run the United States]. Israel is a euphemism … It is really Amer­i­can Jews who are behind this [the Iraq and Afghanistan wars] just as it was dur­ing 1967…” Camp­bell also claimed that Amer­i­can Jews want to kill “mil­lions of Mus­lims” and “thou­sands of Amer­i­cans. This is what Amer­i­can Jews want, this is what they make hap­pen through Wash­ing­ton D.C.”
Ali­son Weir, pres­i­dent of the Coun­cil for the National Inter­est (CNI), an anti-Israel orga­ni­za­tion that opposes U.S. aid to Israel, added to Santomauro’s com­ment about the pro-Israel lobby and char­ac­ter­ized the U.S-Israel rela­tion­ship as an “extremely unhealthy sit­u­a­tion.” Weir also said that large sums of dona­tions from pro-Israel groups are the cause of “tragedy, mis­ery, vio­lence and war after war after war.” Weir’s com­ments are con­sis­tent with her record of using anti-Semitic imagery and por­tray­ing Israel and its agents as pow­er­ful forces that con­trol Amer­i­can pol­icy through intim­i­da­tion and deception.
Press TV, which is based in Tehran, is used by the cler­i­cal regime to pro­vide a plat­form for extreme ele­ments and activists to air their views and opin­ions. Many of Press TV’s U.S.-based guests are fre­quently invited by the sta­tion specif­i­cally for their con­spir­a­to­r­ial anti-Israel views. Ear­lier this year, Weir appeared as a guest on the sta­tion to dis­cuss the 2012 Amer­i­can Israel Pub­lic Affairs Com­mit­tee (AIPAC) con­fer­ence, call­ing the pro-Israel lobby “very dan­ger­ous to the world” and “for Americans.”
  • michael san­tomauro

    Excerpt:

    Finan­cial figures

    A sum­mary of pro-Israel cam­paign dona­tions for the period of 1990–2008 col­lected by Cen­ter for Respon­sive Pol­i­tics indi­cates cur­rent totals and a gen­eral increase in pro­por­tional dona­tions to the US Repub­li­can party since 1996.[43] The Wash­ing­ton Post sum­ma­rized the Cen­ter for Respon­sive Pol­i­tics’ 1990–2006 data and con­cluded that “Pro-Israel inter­ests have con­tributed $56.8 mil­lion in indi­vid­ual, group and soft money dona­tions to fed­eral can­di­dates and party com­mit­tees since 1990.“[44] In con­trast, Arab-Americans and Mus­lim PACs con­tributed slightly less than $800,000 dur­ing the same (1990–2006) period.[45]
    J.J. Gold­berg wrote in his 1994 book Jew­ish Power that 45% of the Demo­c­ra­tic Party’s fundrais­ing and 25% of that for the Repub­li­can Party came from Jewish-funded Polit­i­cal Action Committees.[46] Richard Cohen, a colum­nist for the Wash­ing­ton Post, updated those fig­ures in 2006 cit­ing fig­ures of 60% and 35% respec­tively for the Demo­c­ra­tic and Repub­li­can Par­ties. Accord­ing to the Wash­ing­ton Post, Demo­c­ra­tic pres­i­den­tial can­di­dates depend on Jew­ish sources for 60% of money from pri­vate sources.[47]

    Tar­get­ing

    AIPAC does not give dona­tions directly to can­di­dates, but those who donate to AIPAC are often impor­tant polit­i­cal con­trib­u­tors in their own right. In addi­tion, AIPAC helps con­nect donors with can­di­dates, espe­cially to the net­work of pro-Israel polit­i­cal action com­mit­tees. AIPAC pres­i­dent Howard Fried­man says “AIPAC meets with every can­di­date run­ning for Con­gress. These can­di­dates receive in-depth brief­ings to help them com­pletely under­stand the com­plex­i­ties of Israel’s predica­ment and that of the Mid­dle East as a whole. We even ask each can­di­date to author a ‘posi­tion paper’ on their views of the US-Israel rela­tion­ship – so it’s clear where they stand on the subject.”[40]
    This process has become more tar­geted over time accord­ing to Bard, “In the past, Jew­ish con­tri­bu­tions were less struc­tured and tar­geted than other inter­est groups, but this has changed dra­mat­i­cally as Israel-related polit­i­cal action com­mit­tees (PACs) have proliferated.“[18] Among politi­cians con­sid­ered unfriendly to Israel who AIPAC has helped defeat include Cyn­thia McK­in­ney, Paul Find­ley, Earl F. Hilliard, Pete McCloskey, Sen­a­tors William Ful­bright and Roger Jepsen, and Adlai Steven­son III in his cam­paign for gov­er­nor of Illi­nois in 1982.[41] The defeat of Charles H. Percy, Sen­a­tor for Illi­nois until 1985, has been attrib­uted to AIPAC-co-ordinated dona­tions to his oppo­nent after he sup­ported the sale of AWACS planes to Saudi Ara­bia. Dona­tions included $1.1 mil­lion on anti-Percy adver­tis­ing by Michael Goland, who was also a major con­trib­u­tor to AIPAC.[41] For­mer exec­u­tive direc­tor of AIPAC, Tom Dine, was quoted as say­ing, “All the Jews in Amer­ica, from coast to coast, gath­ered to oust Percy. And the Amer­i­can politi­cians — those who hold pub­lic posi­tions now, and those who aspire — got the message”.[42]

    More:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel_lobby_in_the_United_States

    Peace.
    Michael San­tomauro
    ReporterNotebook@gmail.com

    PS: An anti-Semite con­demns peo­ple for being Jews. I am not an anti-Semite.

  • michael san­tomauro

    Excerpt:

    Press TV: Is it true that there’s a pre­req­ui­site for any­body who wants to run for Con­gress that they actu­ally have to sign a pledge, one of the things in the pledge is that Jerusalem al-Quds is the cap­i­tal city of Israel; another one that they have to make a com­mit­ment to sup­port the mil­i­tary supe­ri­or­ity of Israel in terms of the assis­tance that the United States gives? Is that indeed true; and how is it that some­thing like this has to be in the form of a pledge for peo­ple run­ning for Congress?

    San­tomauro: Well, it’s not a for­mal pledge where you’re sign­ing your name to it but it’s pretty implicit that, you know, you have to give speeches to make it clear to the fundrais­ing crowd that that’s going to be your posi­tion, that Israel comes first in that region, no mat­ter if you’re right or wrong.

    If any­body crit­i­cizes the United States veto vote in the Secu­rity Coun­cil, they get mar­gin­al­ized or they get voted out of office.

    Peo­ple on Capi­tol Hill here in the United States and Wash­ing­ton D.C. are very, very scared of AIPAC, of the Jew­ish lobby, the Israel lobby. It’s the strongest lobby when it comes to for­eign pol­icy. They dic­tate the terms. It’s not a con­spir­acy the­ory. There’s no sloppy think­ing involved. It’s just a mat­ter of where the money is com­ing from.

    Press TV: Go ahead, Michael San­tomauro [in response to guest speaker Ali­son Weir’s comments].

    San­tomauro: Ali­son makes a point about the indi­vid­ual Jew­ish Amer­i­cans and Israelis. They also get mar­gin­al­ized. Nor­man Finkel­stein as of three or four years ago was banned from vis­it­ing Israel for ten years, so I guess he’s got six years to go.

    If you’re an aca­d­e­mic and you have very, very strong rea­son­ing abil­i­ties where you can influ­ence the pub­lic or a seg­ment of the pub­lic, you get mar­gin­al­ized. You get mar­gin­al­ized whether you’re a Jew­ish indi­vid­ual or non-Jewish indi­vid­ual in this culture.

    More: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/245317.html

    Peace.
    Michael San­tomauro
    ReporterNotebook@gmail.com

    PS: An anti-Semite con­demns peo­ple for being Jews. I am not an anti-Semite.

  • michael san­tomauro

    What is ‘Holo­caust Denial’?

    Excerpt:

    Human Soap?

    Is some­one a “Holo­caust denier” if he says that the Nazis did not make soap from the corpses of mur­dered Jews? After con­sid­er­ing the evi­dence — includ­ing an actual bar of soap sup­plied by the Sovi­ets — the Nurem­berg Tri­bunal declared in its Judg­ment that “in some instances attempts were made to uti­lize the fat from the bod­ies of the vic­tims in the com­mer­cial man­u­fac­ture of soap.” [3]

    In 1990, though, Israel’s offi­cial Yad Vashem Holo­caust cen­ter “rewrote his­tory” by admit­ting that the soap story was not true. “His­to­ri­ans have con­cluded that soap was not made from human fat. When so many peo­ple deny the Holo­caust ever hap­pened, why give them some­thing to use against the truth?,” said Yad Vashem offi­cial Shmuel Krakowski. [4]

    Wannsee Con­fer­ence?

    Is some­one a “Holo­caust denier” if he does not accept that the Jan­u­ary 1942 “Wannsee con­fer­ence” of Ger­man bureau­crats was held to set or coor­di­nate a pro­gram of sys­tem­atic mass mur­der of Europe’s Jews? If so, Israeli Holo­caust his­to­rian Yehuda Bauer must be wrong — and a “Holo­caust denier” — because he declared: “The pub­lic still repeats, time after time, the silly story that at Wannsee the exter­mi­na­tion of the Jews was arrived at.” In Bauer’s opin­ion, Wannsee was a meet­ing but “hardly a con­fer­ence” and “lit­tle of what was said there was exe­cuted in detail.” [5]

    Exter­mi­na­tion Policy?

    Is some­one a “Holo­caust denier” if he says that there was no order by Hitler to exter­mi­nate Europe’s Jews? There was a time when the answer would have been yes. Holo­caust his­to­rian Raul Hilberg, for exam­ple, wrote in the 1961 edi­tion of his study, The Destruc­tion of the Euro­pean Jews, that there were two Hitler orders for the destruc­tion of Europe’s Jews: the first given in the spring of 1941, and the sec­ond shortly there­after. But Hilberg removed men­tion of any such order from the revised, three-volume edi­tion of his book pub­lished in 1985. [6] As Holo­caust his­to­rian Christo­pher Brown­ing has noted: [7]

    “In the new edi­tion, all ref­er­ences in the text to a Hitler deci­sion or Hitler order for the ‘Final Solu­tion’ have been sys­tem­at­i­cally excised. Buried at the bot­tom of a sin­gle foot­note stands the soli­tary ref­er­ence: ‘Chronol­ogy and cir­cum­stances point to a Hitler deci­sion before the sum­mer ended.’ In the new edi­tion, deci­sions were not made and orders were not given.”

    Pro­fes­sor Mayer acknowl­edges that the ques­tion of how many really died in Auschwitz remains open. In Why Did the Heav­ens Not Darken? he wrote: [14}

    “… Many ques­tions remain open … All in all, how many bod­ies were cre­mated in Auschwitz? How many died there all told? What was the national, reli­gious, and eth­nic break­down in this com­mon­wealth of vic­tims? How many of them were con­demned to die a ‘nat­ural’ death and how many were delib­er­ately slaugh­tered? And what was the pro­por­tion of Jews among those mur­dered in cold blood among these gassed? We have sim­ply no answers to these ques­tions at this time.”

    More: http://www.ihr.org/leaflets/denial.shtml

    Peace.
    Michael San­tomauro
    ReporterNotebook@gmail.com

    PS: An anti-Semite con­demns peo­ple for being Jews. I am not an anti-Semite.

  • Rene Scherger

    I’m con­fused Micheal. What is a ‘semite’?

    All I know is that the attack upon the Lib­erty was NO MISTAKE. It was delib­er­ate. Amer­i­can Jews like any other Amer­i­can should be loudly and per­sis­tently call­ing upon hav­ing the truth of this hor­ri­ble venal attack against their own peo­ple brought to light and pun­ish those on this side for their treach­ery in cov­er­ing it up all these many decades.

  • Anony­mous

    Screw Isra­hell and screw Jews.

  • frank scott

    i’m curi­ous as the what defines a denier of any­thing, includ­ing the holocaust..if i ques­tion the rea­sons for world war one, does that mean i deny that it hap­pened? if some­one ques­tions the res­ur­rec­tion of christ, does that mean chris­tian­ity is denied?
    and if some­one — many ones, includ­ing me — say that the alleged fact of six mil­lion jews being mur­dered by the nazis in europe, in gas cham­bers, by fir­ing squads or in elec­tric rooms or vats of acid, has as much mate­r­ial, ver­i­fi­able, fac­tual foun­da­tion as the res­ur­rec­tion from the dead of one jew in beth­le­hem or pitts­burg or wher­ever, and that both “facts” are mat­ters of reli­gious faith and belief which have no foun­da­tion in the mate­r­ial world and can­not be estab­lished by any sane, sci­en­tific source but only by belief, as in:

    the tomb was empty…what the hell more evi­dence do you need for a resurrection?…or…we’ve seen the hor­ri­ble pho­tos of dead and liv­ing ema­ci­ated peo­ple in the camps, what more evi­dence do you need for six mil­lion mur­dered in gas chambers?

    just aksin…

  • Joe Rizoli

    Amaz­ing you guys and gal got to have your say con­sid­er­ing most of the time these views are heresy to the ADL and Jews in gen­eral. We are at a point in his­tory when finally we can say to the Jews, your game is up. You’ve been exposed, your holo­caust didn’t come till after 1977 after the Nazi party headed by a Jew mind you, protested your Jew­ish ness. After that, you peo­ple went gung how with your holo­caust lies that for some rea­son only hap­pened to you and are finally now being exposed thanks to the Internet.

    It may be short lived because Laws are now being dis­cussed to make Amer­ica like Ger­many and Europe where free speech may be a thing of the past. When the Jews start pass­ing their dra­con­ian hate laws that will even­tu­ally morph into even ques­tion­ing Jews and their his­tory then we will know where we all stand.

    Watch for words like “insult­ing the mem­ory of the Jews” or ” “intol­er­a­ble insult to the mem­ory of the 6 mil­lion vic­tims of the Shoah.” to be a rea­son for an arrest for a hate crime. Don’t be sur­prised because it is prob­a­bly com­ing fast unless Amer­i­cans and Right­eous Jews fight these intol­er­a­ble actions. Their is enough evi­dence to prove the holo­caust a fraud. Peo­ple are finally see­ing that the Jews don’t speak for us. We need to come together to expose these people.

    Joe Rizoli
    CCFIILE.com we expose them big time see holo­caust links

  • Jerzy Ulicki-Rek

    A typ­i­cal tac­tic use by ADL and the rest of holo-industry is to rail-road the impor­tant issues.
    To avoid this let me go to the point:
    1.Why can’t we have an independent,scientific research in to the holo-claims?
    2.Why do we HAVE TO BELIEVE in official,constantly chang­ing and –on most occasions-absurd ver­sion of this part of our his­tory?
    3.Why-instead of the research I men­tioned above –peo­ple who refuse to BELIEVE and look­ing for sci­en­tific proof are being thrown to jails,persecuted,murdered.
    4.Shortly after the war were were pre­sented with with many ver­sion in rela­tion to a “mur­der weapon” used by Nazis dur­ing the so called“holocaust“
    All of them were sup­ported by plans and eye­wit­ness and included:
    a.STEAM CHAMBERS IN TREBLINKA –PRESENTED DURING THE NUREMBERG TRIAL BY DR TADEUSZ CYPRIAN.
    b.ELECTRIC CHAMBERS IN BERGEN BELSEN
    c.KILLING JEW BY USING THE ATOMIC WEAPON IN 1943 –NURMEBERG TRIAL –ACCORDING TO AMERICAN PROSECUTOR JACKSON
    d.GAS CHAMBERS LOCATED IN MOST GERMAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS

    and many ‚many others.

    At present only the “gas cham­bers’ ver­sion is still float­ing ‚restricted how­ever to one camp in Poland.
    I rec­om­mend here a video made by David Cole dur­ing his visit to Auschwitz/Oswiecim and his inter­views with peo­ple work­ing in a museum there.

    Let me as well invite you to my web­site where-during the sev­eral years– I col­lected a lot of mate­ri­als in rela­tion to “holo­caust“
    HOLOCAUST MYTH
    http://www.polskawalczaca.com/viewforum.php?f=36

    We,humans, have the right to learn the truth.
    No more,no less.

    Jerzy Ulicki-Rek

  • Anony­mous

    Unfor­tu­nately the West­ern media is FULLY con­trolled by Israel or pro-Israel agents who are in a posi­tion to switch right to wrong and vice versa.

    The Israelis tried their utmost to sink Lib­erty, had they suc­ceeded before it screamed its SOS, they would have blamed the Arabs to have car­ried their crim­i­nal act, AS USUAL!!!!!.

    The same crim­i­nal entity who tried to sink Lib­erty was respon­si­ble for 9/11.

    The word El Qaida is noth­ing but a code name, invented to throw on it all Israeli and pro-Israel crim­i­nal and dirty actions on it.

    Unfor­tu­nately, as long as the US and its allies are con­trolled by Israeli agents and media, the really, free world will never see peace.

  • Anony­mous

    Doubt­ing religions,perhaps not accept­able by some peo­ple, OK, we are talk­ing of thou­sands of years ago, when there was no more than hearsay trans­mit­ted through the gen­er­a­tions, no records no …
    Com­par­a­tively, the holoshit was only few years ago, now we have the capa­bil­ity of ver­i­fy­ing almost every­thing … even exhum­ing the dead and count them for a mat­ter as seri­ous as the six mil­lions they claim, if ever it gets to that!!!!!
    The records show only five mil­lion Jews existed all over the world in 1939. To day with com­put­ers and sci­ence every­where its sim­ple math­e­mat­ics to ver­ify not only the num­ber of Jews up to the day the sec­ond world war started, but even the num­ber of stars in the skies

  • Anony­mous

    It has been said so many times over the years, but crit­i­cism, by Amer­i­cans about US for­eign pol­icy, specif­i­cally as it per­tains to Israel ver­sus Amer­i­can inter­ests is not only healthy but essen­tial if we are to pre­serve ANYTHING of our Con­sti­tu­tional rights to free speech to say noth­ing of the issue of REJECTING any more shoves to wars for /in defense of Israeli desire for total hege­mony.
    ANYONE who has ever read any­thing by Ali­son Weir knows that she per­son­i­fies a Class A pro­fes­sional jour­nal­ist because she does her research and cites all her resources with care. The fact that the sur­vivors of the USS Lib­erty “holo­caust” were forced to silence for decades under pain of impris­on­ment and that the pres­i­dent at the time and the Con­gress failed to stand up for “our troops” should serve as a warn­ing to all US military.…surely that was one rea­son why this issue was so SUPPRESSED.

    FRIENDLY FIRE INDEED.. a 2 hour sus­tained multi agency attack in broad day­light in INTERNATIONAL waters against a ship that could not defend itself was noth­ing other than the actions of a treach­er­ous trai­tor­ous regime. Had the attack been car­ried out by Russ­ian, Ger­man or any other nation it would have been seen as an act of war.

    The small boat attack against the US COLE was labeled as an act of war of AQ.
    How could this 45 yr old sup­pres­sion about LIBERTY be under­stood as less hor­rific than the COLE’s attack?

    When Amer­i­cans, espe­cially my fel­low US VETERANS demand a full in depth inves­ti­ga­tion into the Liberty’s attack.…(especially in light of the fact that the Has­bara machine con­tin­ues to claim the 6 day ‘war’ as a defen­sive maneu­ver instead of the PREEMPTIVE planned destruc­tion of neigh­bor­ing mil­i­tary that it was).…there is an unyield­ing demand to get to the TRUTH of it and expose these das­tardly lies for the pro­pa­ganda that it is.
    ONLY THE TRUTH will end this …its time for TRUTH.…long overdue…as it is time for end­ing per­pet­ual wars for Israel’s “secu­rity”. The only way to secu­rity is to stop killing oth­ers. If not now, when? if not you, who ?

  • Vlad Writes

    Thank you for includ­ing the com­ments of Michael S, he is very brave to oppose Israel and its unended war machine.

    Vlad

  • Anony­mous

    I sin­cerely hope that you all end up liv­ing in the great Islamic Repub­lic of Iran, so you can enjoy curs­ing Israel day and night and live the UTOPIA of the non-Zionist world.

    Oh boy how lucky we are to live in Israel…btw, can you do me a favor and ask Ahmedi Nijad to take a bath and shave his beard, he looks a bit uh-mm d i r t y

  • Jerzy Ulicki-Rek

    “btw, can you do me a favor and ask Ahmedi Nijad to take a bath and shave his beard, he looks a bit uh-mm d i r t y”

    Do I have to ad any­thing to this deep ‚human wis­dom?:)
    You demand to be respected?:)
    In Pol­ish lan­guage we call ADL :p-ADL-ina.
    PADLINA means car­cass :)
    Jerzy Ulicki-Rek

  • michael san­tomauro

    Dear Mr. Abe Foxman:

    IT IS NOT “racist” for a pro­fes­sor such as Alan Der­showitz or for a pro­fes­sor like Kevin Mac­Don­ald to advo­cate for their eth­nic group interests.

    The words for big­otry that are often used, such as anti-Semitic, anti-White, anti-Black, anti-Arab, anti-feminist, anti-gay and hun­dreds of other labels, are for the most part over­stated. Instead, [the demo­nized view­points] should be seen as pro-White or pro-Jewish or pro-women or pro-traditional fam­ily and should not be con­sid­ered shameful.

    These “pro” sen­si­bil­i­ties are part of the human con­di­tion, not to be pathol­o­gized into an “anti.”

    It is about group interests.

    A race or eth­nie with­out a sense of peo­ple­hood or iden­tity will end up being used to achieve the goals of other eth­nies. (Yes, eth­nie, not ethnic).

    Our feel­ings or thoughts of peo­ple­hood are not patho­log­i­cal. They are nat­ural. The European-American will have White eth­nic inter­ests and it is not “racist” to have them. Just as His­pan­ics, Asians, Jews, and Blacks have their own eth­nic inter­ests, it should not be con­sid­ered a pathol­ogy for Whites to have them.

    An eth­nie with­out a sense of peo­ple­hood will end up being used to achieve the goals of other ethnies.

    Thank you and remember:

    Peace is patriotic!

    Michael San­tomauro
    Call any­time: 917–974-6367

    E-mail me any­thing:
    ReporterNotebook@Gmail.com

    http://michaelsantomauro.blogspot.com/2011/01/sense-of-peoplehood-is-not-pathology-by_24.html