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July 31, 2015 2

Significant Increase in Anti-Semitic Incidents in UK for 2015

CST, ADL’s part­ner in UK, reported today a sig­nif­i­cant increase in anti-Semitic inci­dents for first half of 2015, com­pared to the same period in 2014, but cau­tioned against alarm: “Detailed analy­sis of the tim­ing, con­tent and sources of every one of these recorded anti­se­mitic inci­dents sug­gests that, while they may partly reflect a real rise in inci­dent lev­els, the pri­mary expla­na­tion for the rise is most likely to be a greater will­ing­ness by peo­ple to report anti­semitism, either to CST or Police.”

CST report

The report does con­tain, how­ever, some dis­turb­ing findings:

-          Forty-four vio­lent anti-Semitic assaults were recorded dur­ing the period, includ­ing two instances of “griev­ous bod­ily harm.”  The num­ber of vio­lent inci­dents dou­bled from 2014.

-          Syn­a­gogues were tar­geted 25 times in first half of 2015.

-          Twenty inci­dents occurred at Jew­ish schools; 10 at pub­lic schools; and 14 inci­dents involved Jew­ish chil­dren or school staff on their way to or from school.  Three of the inci­dents involv­ing chil­dren were clas­si­fied under “Assaults.”

Infor­ma­tion on per­pe­tra­tors and moti­va­tions was also reported, though with caveats about the reli­a­bil­ity of infor­ma­tion from vic­tims about the per­pe­tra­tors’ eth­nic­ity.  The report cat­e­go­rizes the per­pe­tra­tors’ “eth­nic appear­ance” as:

-          54% “white – north European”

-          23% “south Asian”

-          13% “black”

-          6% “Arab or north African”

-          3% “white – south European”

-          1% “east or south-east Asian”

Polit­i­cal dis­course was reported in just 36% of inci­dents, with far-right lan­guage mak­ing up the vast major­ity.   Ref­er­ences to Israel, Zion­ism or the Mid­dle East were reported to have been made in less than 7% of incidents.

These num­bers should put to rest the com­monly held mis­con­cep­tion that anti-Semitic inci­dents are pri­mar­ily dri­ven by reac­tions to the Mid­dle East con­flict.  Yes, fight­ing between Israelis and Pales­tini­ans can trig­ger an upsurge, but right-wing extrem­ist anti-Semitism remains a seri­ous con­cern in the UK and elsewhere.

For more data on anti-Semitic atti­tudes in the UK, see ADL’s 2014 Global 100 sur­vey and 2015 fol­low up.

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July 20, 2015 0

Rising Anti-Semitism in Europe: History Repeating Once Again

By Abra­ham H. Fox­man
National Direc­tor of the Anti-Defamation League

This arti­cle orig­i­nally appeared on The Huff­in­g­ton Post Blog

The anti-Semitism news from Europe in over the past year has been ter­ri­ble: Jews mur­dered in Paris and Copen­hagen, syn­a­gogues attacked by mobs and fire­bombed, and increas­ing Jew­ish emi­gra­tion attrib­uted to fear of more attacks.

A new poll on anti-Semitic atti­tudes, how­ever, may offer some rea­son for opti­mism amid an oth­er­wise bleak picture.

The Anti-Defamation League poll, a follow-up to our 2014 sur­vey of anti-Semitic atti­tudes in more than 100 coun­tries and ter­ri­to­ries, found sig­nif­i­cant decreases in big­oted views toward Jews in France, Bel­gium, and Ger­many, where anti-Semitic vio­lence has been a promi­nent issue.

The sur­pris­ing results in these three coun­tries prompted us to look deeper into pos­si­ble rea­sons and to con­firm the results.  The ini­tial results were con­firmed and the new data we obtained sug­gest pos­si­ble explanations.

What did we find in all three coun­tries?  Respon­dents had height­ened aware­ness and con­cern about vio­lence against Jews and a stronger sense of sol­i­dar­ity with the Jew­ish com­mu­ni­ties.  Over half of French respon­dents had heard polit­i­cal lead­ers con­demn anti-Semitism, and majori­ties in all three coun­tries noted their gov­ern­ments had been more active in com­bat­ting anti-Semitism.

For decades, ADL has urged pub­lic fig­ures in Amer­ica and around the world to denounce anti-Semitism when inci­dents occur. In the U.S., lead­ers at all lev­els of gov­ern­ment make such state­ments and we have seen decreases in anti-Semitic atti­tudes here in our decades of domes­tic polling.

Over the past year, we have also seen strong and sus­tained denun­ci­a­tions of anti-Semitism in France by Prime Min­is­ter Manuel Manuel Valls and Pres­i­dent Fran­cois Hol­lande, where the most pro­nounced drop in anti-Semitic atti­tudes was found among the Euro­pean coun­tries sur­veyed.  In Ger­many, Chan­cel­lor Angela Merkel head­lined a rally against anti-Semitism in Sep­tem­ber.  Bel­gian Prime Min­is­ter Charles Michel, who took office in Octo­ber, has been out­spo­ken against anti-Semitism and hon­est about lax­ity of pre­vi­ous governments.

Such actions should be emu­lated by all Euro­pean leaders.

It is cer­tainly pos­si­ble that peo­ple were sim­ply less will­ing to express agree­ment with anti-Jewish state­ments, while still har­bor­ing such atti­tudes. Respon­dents reported sim­i­lar lev­els of anti-Semitism among peo­ple they know com­pared with 2014, a per­cep­tion which is often a proxy for peo­ple hold­ing anti-Semitic views them­selves.  Even if that is the case, greater ret­i­cence to express anti-Semitism would still be a pos­i­tive development.

The good news must be tem­pered by the sober­ing con­cern that we do not know how deep and last­ing these pos­i­tive shifts will be.  The trau­matic effects of the recent vio­lence in France, Bel­gium and Ger­many may fade and the reluc­tance to express anti-Semitic atti­tudes may recede.  Addi­tional polling over time will tell us.

Other poll results showed how much anti-bias work remains to be done.

For the first time, the ADL poll mea­sured Mus­lim atti­tudes in Bel­gium, France, Ger­many, Italy, Spain, and the U.K.  An aver­age of 55 per­cent of West­ern Euro­pean Mus­lims har­bored anti-Semitic atti­tudes. Accep­tance of anti-Semitic stereo­types by Mus­lims in these coun­tries was sub­stan­tially higher than among the national pop­u­la­tion in each coun­try (rang­ing from 12 to 29 per­cent), though lower than cor­re­spond­ing fig­ures of 75 per­cent for Mus­lims in the Mid­dle East and North Africa (MENA) in ADL’s 2014 poll.

The index is made up of 11 clas­si­cal stereo­types about Jews.  In con­sul­ta­tion with schol­ars, ADL set a stan­dard in which respon­dents had to agree with six or more of these stereo­types in order to be described as har­bor­ing anti-Semitic atti­tudes.  To be sure, any one ques­tion may be sub­ject to dif­fer­ent inter­pre­ta­tions.  How­ever, agree­ing with at least six of these state­ments makes clear one’s biased atti­tude toward Jews.

On most conspiracy-related state­ments, e.g. “Jews have too much con­trol over global affairs,” results for Euro­pean and MENA Mus­lims showed lit­tle dif­fer­ence.  How­ever, on neg­a­tive state­ments about Jew­ish char­ac­ter, e.g. “peo­ple hate Jews because of the way they behave” and “Jews think they are bet­ter than other peo­ple,” Euro­pean Mus­lims scored sub­stan­tially lower than MENA Muslims.

Reduc­ing vio­lent attacks on Jews and Jew­ish insti­tu­tions must clearly be the first pri­or­ity in the bat­tle against anti-Semitism, but chang­ing atti­tudes counts.  While we do not see a cor­re­la­tion between high num­bers of vio­lent inci­dents and high lev­els of anti-Semitic beliefs, Jews feel freer to live openly as Jews when they are con­fi­dent of being accepted in their soci­eties, not just in the absence of secu­rity concerns.

The fight against anti-Semitism must be waged in the pub­lic square and at schools, as well as by law enforce­ment.  Polit­i­cal lead­ers must set the tone and devote the polit­i­cal cap­i­tal to encour­ag­ing every sec­tor of soci­ety to engage together to com­bat the scourge of anti-Semitism.  Civil soci­ety and the busi­ness com­mu­nity, edu­ca­tors and jour­nal­ists, reli­gious lead­ers and stu­dents, par­ents and chil­dren, law enforce­ment offi­cers, pros­e­cu­tors and jurists must all join the battle.

Large majori­ties of respon­dents in Bel­gium (68 per­cent), France (77 per­cent), and Ger­many (78 per­cent) agreed that, “Vio­lence against Jews in this coun­try affects every­one and is an attack on our way of life.”  We should not set­tle for less than 100 per­cent, and that requires clear and con­sis­tent rein­force­ment that threats to Jews are assaults on the well-being and sense of secu­rity for the whole society.

Let us hope the improve­ments found in our poll grow in effect, expand across Europe, and even­tu­ally through the rest of the world.

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May 22, 2014 2

Palestinians Welcome Pope Francis To Bethlehem With Anti-Semitism

On Sun­day, when Pope Fran­cis cel­e­brates mass in Bethlehem’s Manger Square, he may be con­fronted with bill­boards depict­ing Jesus being attacked by Israeli soldiers.jesus-palestinian-pope-israel

This not-so-subtle mod­ern day ver­sion of the dei­cide is trans­par­ent clas­si­cal anti-Semitism in the guise of crit­i­cism of Israel.  The posters are a prod­uct of The Pales­tin­ian Museum, which announced that at the request of the Pales­tin­ian Author­ity (PA)’s Supreme Pres­i­den­tial Com­mit­tee for Church Affairs, it had pre­pared spe­cial bill­boards to dec­o­rate Manger Square which “com­bine recent media pho­tographs of the Pales­tin­ian land­scape and its peo­ple with West­ern baroque paint­ings of bib­li­cal scenes.”

The posters, some of which depict Jesus suf­fer­ing at the hands of Israeli sol­diers, will high­light “the ten­sion between the pop­u­lar image of the Holy Land and Palestine’s ongo­ing his­tory of suf­fer­ing under occu­pa­tion and oppres­sion,”  accord­ing to the Museum.

Pales­tin­ian efforts to present them­selves as the direct descen­dants of Jesus are noth­ing new.  Nor is the manip­u­la­tive and anti-Semitic com­par­i­son of Pales­tin­ian suf­fer­ing at the hands of Jews just as they claim Jews were respon­si­ble for suf­fer­ing and death of Jesus.

The mes­sage care­fully cho­sen by an offi­cial Pales­tin­ian body to pub­licly wel­come Pope Fran­cis demon­strates how deeply inter­min­gled anti-Jewish and anti-Israel atti­tudes are in the Pales­tin­ian pub­lic sphere.

At the weekly meet­ing of Israel’s cab­i­net, Prime Min­is­ter Netanyahu decried Pales­tin­ian incite­ment, cit­ing the ADL Global 100 Sur­vey find­ings about the high level of anti-Semitic atti­tudes in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

While the PA reg­u­larly com­plains that incite­ment is an Israeli-manufactured excuse, there is no deny­ing that extreme anti-Israel and anti-Semitic mes­sag­ing appears rou­tinely in offi­cial Pales­tin­ian pub­li­ca­tions and institutions.

Ear­lier this week, the May 21st edi­tion of the Pales­tin­ian Author­ity daily Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, fea­tured an op-ed by one of its fre­quent writ­ers, Yahya Rabah, enti­tled “No One Believes Shy­lock,” fea­tur­ing the denial of the Jew­ish con­nec­tion to the Land of Israel, com­par­isons of Israel to the Nazis and other out­rages.   Rabah writes:

“… Israel lives on a broad and exten­sive sys­tem of laws from the British Man­date, on illu­sion­ary Torah maps, as well as on hal­lu­ci­na­tions from the Baby­lon­ian cap­tiv­ity or from the Roman, the exis­tence of nei­ther has no sin­gle evi­dence. (It also lives) on prac­tices bor­rowed from the Nazis, cur­rently imi­tated by the Israelis against the Pales­tin­ian peo­ple, as clearly estab­lished by a num­ber of intel­lec­tu­als, authors and his­to­ri­ans in Israel these days.”

The issue of Pales­tin­ian incite­ment, and the PA’s chronic fail­ure to pre­pare the Pales­tin­ian pub­lic for peace with Israel was on ongo­ing con­cern cited by Israeli offi­cials dur­ing the recent cycle of US-brokered peace nego­ti­a­tions.

And with these egre­gious exam­ples appear­ing almost-daily, it is cer­tain to con­tinue to alarm all those com­mit­ted to true Israeli-Palestinian reconciliation.

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