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May 4, 2015 0

Israeli Ethiopians & Israeli Society

By Abra­ham H. Fox­man
National Direc­tor of the Anti-Defamation League

This arti­cle orig­i­nally appeared on The Jerusalem Post Blog

As anger and frus­tra­tion boiled over in the streets in Tel Aviv and our hearts ached over scenes of con­fronta­tion and vio­lence between Israeli Ethiopi­ans and the Israel Police, our thoughts turned to an ear­lier time for the Ethiopian Jews who made the ardu­ous jour­ney to their Jew­ish home­land in Israel.

Some 15 years ago in the after­math of the riots in Los Ange­les trig­gered by police mis­treat­ment of Rod­ney King, the Anti-Defamation League devel­oped a unique pro­gram to fos­ter under­stand­ing between minor­ity groups and encour­age the devel­op­ment of young lead­ers who would stand up to prej­u­dice, big­otry and dis­crim­i­na­tion.
We called it “Chil­dren of the Dream,” and the expe­ri­ence of Ethiopian Jewry was the main focus.
“Chil­dren of the Dream” was designed to empower Israeli Ethiopian teenagers to share their immi­grant sto­ries with Amer­i­can youth, to illus­trate how Israel brought this endan­gered com­mu­nity to their Jew­ish homeland.

ADL’s her­itage as an Amer­i­can Jew­ish civil rights and human rela­tions orga­ni­za­tion and our strong pres­ence in Israel made us uniquely posi­tioned to broaden our work build­ing bridges of under­stand­ing within diverse com­mu­ni­ties in both coun­tries through this program.

In the process, we chal­lenged and broke down stereo­types. It was pow­er­ful and mov­ing to see these young Israeli men and women inter­act­ing with Amer­i­can stu­dents, who were awed by the fact that these young Ethiopian teenagers were not only immi­grants from a far­away land, but were also, remark­ably, newly minted Israeli cit­i­zens and Jews.  In short, they did not fit the stereo­typ­i­cal notion of who is Jew­ish and what is a Jew.

Through the years, the pro­gram gave every­one touched by it a feel­ing of hope. The pride those Ethiopian teenagers felt in being cho­sen to rep­re­sent their new home­land as Jews played a crit­i­cal role in their absorp­tion into Israeli life. And it con­tributed to their suc­cess sto­ries as they ful­filled their ser­vice in the Israel Defense Forces, com­pleted their aca­d­e­mic stud­ies, chose their careers and built families.

The dis­turb­ing images last week of Israeli police mis­treat­ing an Israeli Ethiopian sol­dier, fol­lowed by ugly inci­dents of vio­lence in street protests against the inci­dent Sun­day night in Rabin Square — as with the recent vio­lence in response to alle­ga­tions of police mis­treat­ment of African-Americans in the U.S. — were a stark reminder that Israel, also like the U.S., still has a long way to go in ensur­ing full equal­ity for all of its citizens.

Israel, which was founded on demo­c­ra­tic ideals of equal­ity and has wel­comed immi­grants from all over the world, must inten­sify efforts through­out Israeli soci­ety to pro­mote and strengthen under­stand­ing and respect among its citizens.

So where have things gone wrong?

From our work in diver­sity edu­ca­tion, we have learned that the ear­lier chil­dren learn to respect oth­ers, the ear­lier we see the most sig­nif­i­cant results. Sadly, with the need to meet aca­d­e­mic goals, pro­grams to pro­mote under­stand­ing and respect are often left behind or de-emphasized. It can­not be so in Israel, a land of immi­grants.  And it should not be so in Amer­ica, either.

The chap­ter on Israel’s efforts to bring Jew­ish Ethiopi­ans to Israel — going so far as to air­lift them to the Jew­ish state — is a mag­nif­i­cent one.  Yet 15 years ago, as today, we know it is not enough just to bring Jews to Israel from all over the world.  They must be assim­i­lated and accepted into soci­ety. It is like­wise not enough to have laws to pre­vent dis­crim­i­na­tion; the laws have to be enforced to be meaningful.

Just this past week, Israel Police Com­mis­sioner Yohanan Danino took the first steps toward engag­ing in the hard work needed to pro­mote a sense of trust between the Israel Police and the mem­bers of the Ethiopian com­mu­nity they are sworn to protect.

Ensur­ing that all cit­i­zens of Israel feel pro­tected by the law and respected by law enforce­ment requires con­stant vig­i­lance.  While we under­stand their frus­tra­tion and anger, we also need to remind the Israeli Ethiopian com­mu­nity that vio­lence will only cause fur­ther dam­age to their cause.

And for the future: The gov­ern­ment of Israel and Israeli civil soci­ety should com­mit to a plan of action to coun­ter­act racism in gen­eral and toward the Ethiopian com­mu­nity in par­tic­u­lar as a pri­or­ity in order to ensure a healthy soci­ety for all Israelis.

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March 26, 2015 2

50 Years Later: Bending the Arc of the Moral Universe Towards Justice

Fifty years ago yes­ter­day Dr. Mar­tin Luther King, Jr. addressed a crowd of 20,000 peo­ple, many of whom had marched for a week from Selma to Mont­gomery, Alabama to advo­cate for vot­ing rights.  Their arrival was tri­umphant, after the first attempt had left the non-violent marchers blood­ied and beaten—but not defeated—by police offi­cers in Selma two-and-a-half weeks before. As he stood on the steps of the capi­tol build­ing in Mont­gomery and reflected on the jour­ney of the civil rights move­ment, Dr. King rhetor­i­cally asked, “How long will it take?” and famously answered, “Not long, because the arc of the moral uni­verse is long, but it bends towards justice.” martin-luther-king-jr

As with any long arc, it is almost impos­si­ble to see progress from up close.  Each small, incre­men­tal change seems insignif­i­cant from that van­tage point.  Yet tak­ing a step back and look­ing at the tra­jec­tory over the past 50 years reveals how every small step has con­tributed to bend­ing the arc just a lit­tle bit fur­ther towards justice.

Today, the United States has the first African Amer­i­can pres­i­dent and there are almost seven times as many African Amer­i­can elected offi­cials as there were in 1970, when researchers first began track­ing the num­bers. The 2012 elec­tion marked the first elec­tion in which African Amer­i­cans voted at a higher rate than whites.  None of that would have been pos­si­ble with­out the Vot­ing Rights Act of 1965, which in turn would never have come to be with­out the tire­less, daily efforts of count­less indi­vid­u­als.  From the Free­dom Rid­ers who risked their lives to reg­is­ter vot­ers, to the peo­ple who fear­lessly faced police offi­cers with billy clubs and tear gas on the Edmund Pet­tus Bridge, to the advo­cates who lob­bied for pas­sage of the bill and the lawyers who argued in court for it to be upheld, each had a small part in bend­ing the arc.

In other areas of civil rights, too, each incre­men­tal step seems small up close but con­tributes to the greater tra­jec­tory.  Today, as the United States hope­fully stands on the eve of mar­riage equal­ity for all, it is clear that many small steps com­bined to get us here.  From the pro­test­ers at Stonewall to the seven cou­ples who brought a case in Mass­a­chu­setts that would ulti­mately make it the first state with mar­riage equal­ity, from the mem­bers of the LGBT com­mu­nity who came out when it was very dif­fi­cult to do so to their allies who spoke up and spoke out about LGBT rights, each per­son and action had a small part to play.  In the area of women’s rights, the women who con­vened a meet­ing in Seneca Falls to write the Dec­la­ra­tion of Rights and Sen­ti­ments, the suf­fragettes, the women who had careers long before it was socially accepted, those who coura­geously came for­ward to speak about sex­ual harass­ment, and the men who sup­ported equal pay for equal work all put small cracks in the glass ceil­ing.  Together, all the advo­cates, activists, allies, and peo­ple who sim­ply spoke up played a part in bend­ing the arc.

The lessons of Selma are about secur­ing the fun­da­men­tal right to vote for all and civil rights more broadly.  But they are also about what can hap­pen over time if each per­son plays a part in advanc­ing civil rights, speak­ing up for social jus­tice, and mov­ing the ball for­ward just the tini­est bit.  Fifty years after Selma, we are much fur­ther along the arc and much closer to a per­fect union, but each of us has a role to play every day in deter­min­ing the tra­jec­tory from here.

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March 16, 2015 2

To Confront Racism, We Must Also Look In the Mirror

teenagers debateLast week, dis­turb­ing video emerged of fra­ter­nity broth­ers from the Sigma Alpha Epsilon (SAE) chap­ter at the Uni­ver­sity of Okla­homa laugh­ing while singing a racist chant: “There will never be a ni**** SAE. You can hang him from a tree, but he can never sign with me. There will never be a ni**** SAE.”

The news comes on the heels of the recent find­ings from a Depart­ment of Jus­tice inves­ti­ga­tion in Fer­gu­son, MO which, among other things, revealed a deeply trou­bling series of racist emails by Fer­gu­son offi­cials. One email, for exam­ple, in Novem­ber 2008 pre­dicted that Pres­i­dent Obama would not be pres­i­dent much longer because “what black man holds a steady job for four years.”

With few excep­tions, peo­ple have denounced these inci­dents as racist. Imme­di­ately after the news broke, the pres­i­dent of the Uni­ver­sity of Okla­homa con­demned the stu­dents’ behav­ior and sev­ered all ties between the uni­ver­sity and the local SAE chap­ter.  At the same time, the national SAE head­quar­ters shut down the local chap­ter. Ferguson’s munic­i­pal court clerk was fired and the chief of police and two police offi­cers resigned after the DOJ report was released.

It is cer­tainly appro­pri­ate to con­demn this racism and teach peo­ple to chal­lenge biased lan­guage, but it is not enough.  Today, thank­fully, such overt racism is much less com­mon than in the past.  Still, there is an under­cur­rent of much sub­tler, more deeply buried bias that still flows through Amer­ica.  While fewer and fewer Amer­i­cans would use overt offen­sive, deroga­tory terms, many of us—consciously or not—have implicit biases (uncon­scious atti­tudes, stereo­types or unin­ten­tional actions that we direct at a mem­ber of a group sim­ply because of that person’s mem­ber­ship in that group).

The implicit biases embed­ded in, for exam­ple, the racial dis­par­i­ties in the crim­i­nal jus­tice sys­tem or the seg­re­gated nature of the col­lege fra­ter­nity sys­tem, can be as or more harm­ful than this hate­ful and deroga­tory language.

From a very early age we learn to dif­fer­en­ti­ate between things that are the same and things that are dif­fer­ent: one of these things is not like the other one.  Sci­ence shows that we make the same snap judg­ments about other peo­ple, using what we know and what we assume to cat­e­go­rize things. While that gives us impor­tant tools in mak­ing sense of the world, when paired with soci­etal biases and stereo­types it can become harm­ful. As a result of sub­tle mes­sages through­out soci­ety, most people—whether or not they intend it, and often when they expressly do not—have some implicit biases.

Stud­ies have found, for exam­ple, that doc­tors are more likely to pre­scribe pain med­ica­tion for white patients with a bro­ken leg than African Amer­i­can or Latino patients. Law firm part­ners, when asked to eval­u­ate a memo writ­ten by a hypo­thet­i­cal asso­ciate, scored the memo lower and found more mis­takes when they were told it had been writ­ten by an African Amer­i­can.  Another study found that, in order to get a call for an inter­view, appli­cants with typ­i­cally black names (such as Jamal or Lak­isha) had to send out 50 per­cent more resumes.

It is easy to dis­miss the racism at SAE and in Fer­gu­son as an aber­ra­tion and some­thing we would never engage in our­selves. It is much harder to deny that we have any implicit bias, espe­cially if you take the Implicit Asso­ci­a­tion Test. Because implicit bias begins at a very early age and devel­ops over the course of a life­time, there are ways we can par­ent, teach and inter­act with young peo­ple to coun­ter­act these direct and indi­rect messages:

  • Make your home, class­room and school envi­ron­ment as diverse as pos­si­ble so that from an early age, you work to coun­ter­act neg­a­tive biases. This means cre­at­ing an inclu­sive and cul­tur­ally sen­si­tive class­room with books, class­room dis­plays, bul­letin boards, hol­i­day cel­e­bra­tions, videos, sto­ries, text­books, etc. and make sure dif­fer­ent per­spec­tives are reflected in your class­room curriculum.
  • Affirm and reflect the dif­fer­ent aspects of iden­tity rep­re­sented in your class­room and help young peo­ple decon­struct assump­tions, stereo­types and labels they have about dif­fer­ent groups of people.
  • Teach stu­dents what overt and implicit bias are and seek their par­tic­i­pa­tion in pro-actively doing some­thing about it.

 


 

 

Para Enfrentar el Racismo, Tam­bién Debe­mos Mirarnos en el Espejo

 

Hace poco tiempo apare­ció un per­tur­bador vídeo de los miem­bros de la frater­nidad del capí­tulo Sigma Alpha Epsilon (SAE) de la Uni­ver­si­dad de Okla­homa, en el que ríen mien­tras can­tan un cán­tico racista: “Nunca habrá un ne***** en SAE. Puedes col­garlo de un árbol, pero él nunca podrá aso­cia­rse con­migo. Nunca habrá un SAE ne*****”.

La noti­cia le pisa los talones a los recientes resul­ta­dos de una inves­ti­gación en Fer­gu­son, MO real­izada por el Depar­ta­mento de Jus­ti­cia que, entre otras cosas, rev­eló una muy pre­ocu­pante serie de correos elec­tróni­cos racis­tas emi­ti­dos por fun­cionar­ios de Fer­gu­son. Por ejem­plo, un correo  predijo en noviem­bre de 2008 que el Pres­i­dente Obama no sería pres­i­dente por mucho más tiempo porque “qué hom­bre negro es capaz de tener un tra­bajo con­stante durante cua­tro años”.

 

Con pocas excep­ciones, la gente ha denun­ci­ado estos inci­dentes como racis­tas. Inmedi­ata­mente después de que aparecieran las noti­cias, el pres­i­dente de la Uni­ver­si­dad de Okla­homa con­denó el com­por­tamiento de los estu­di­antes y cortó todos los vín­cu­los entre la uni­ver­si­dad y el capí­tulo local del SAE.  Al mismo tiempo, la ofic­ina nacional del SAE cerró el capí­tulo local. El sec­re­tario del juz­gado munic­i­pal de Fer­gu­son fue des­pe­dido y el jefe del policía y dos ofi­ciales de policía renun­cia­ron cuando el informe de Depar­ta­mento de Jus­ti­cia fue dado a conocer.

Cier­ta­mente es apropi­ado con­denar este racismo y enseñar a la gente a enfrentar el lenguaje pre­jui­ci­ado, pero eso no es sufi­ciente.  Hoy día, afor­tu­nada­mente, el racismo tan abierto es mucho menos común que en el pasado.  No obstante, en Esta­dos Unidos todavía hay una cor­ri­ente sub­ter­ránea de pre­juicio mucho más sutil, enter­rado más pro­fun­da­mente.  Aunque cada vez menos esta­dounidenses uti­lizarían tér­mi­nos ofen­sivos o despec­tivos abier­ta­mente, muchos de nosotros −con­sciente o incon­scien­te­mente− ten­emos pre­juicios implíc­i­tos (acti­tudes incon­scientes, estereoti­pos o acciones no inten­cionales que dirigi­mos con­tra un miem­bro de un grupo sim­ple­mente por ser miem­bro de ese grupo).

 

Los pre­juicios implíc­i­tos arraiga­dos en, por ejem­plo, las dis­pari­dades raciales en el sis­tema de jus­ti­cia crim­i­nal o la nat­u­raleza seg­re­gada del sis­tema de frater­nidades uni­ver­si­tarias, pueden ser tanto o más dañi­nos que este lenguaje despec­tivo y de odio.

Desde muy tem­prana edad apren­demos a dis­tin­guir entre las cosas que son iguales y las cosas que son difer­entes: una de estas cosas no es como la otra.  La cien­cia demues­tra que hace­mos los mis­mos juicios rápi­dos sobre la gente, usando lo que sabe­mos y lo que asum­i­mos para clasi­ficar cosas. Aunque eso nos da impor­tantes her­ramien­tas para enten­der el mundo, cuando se une con pre­juicios y estereoti­pos sociales puede lle­gar a ser per­ju­di­cial. Como resul­tado de men­sajes sutiles en la sociedad, la may­oría de la gente −lo quiera o no, y a menudo cuando expre­sa­mente no lo quiere− tiene algunos pre­juicios implícitos.

Por ejem­plo, los estu­dios han encon­trado que los médi­cos tienen más ten­den­cia a pre­scribir medica­men­tos para el dolor a los pacientes blan­cos con una pierna rota que a los pacientes afro-americanos o lati­nos. Cuando se le pidió a los socios de una firma de abo­ga­dos eval­uar un memo escrito por un aso­ci­ado hipotético, lo cal­i­fi­caron menos bien y encon­traron más errores cuando les dijeron que había sido escrito por un afro-americano.  Otro estu­dio encon­tró que para con­seguir una cita para una entre­vista, los aspi­rantes con nom­bres típi­ca­mente negros (tales como Jamal o Lak­isha) tuvieron que enviar 50% más currículos

Es fácil descar­tar el racismo en el SAE y en Fer­gu­son como una aber­ración y algo en lo que nunca par­tic­i­paríamos nosotros mis­mos. Es mucho más difí­cil negar que ten­emos algún pre­juicio implíc­ito, espe­cial­mente si tomamos la Prueba de Aso­ciación Implícita. Debido a que el pre­juicio implíc­ito comienza en una edad muy tem­prana y se desar­rolla a lo largo de la vida, hay man­eras en que podemos criar, enseñar e inter­ac­tuar con los jóvenes para con­trar­restar estos men­sajes direc­tos e indirectos:

  • Haga el ambi­ente de su hogar, salón de clase y escuela tan diverso como sea posi­ble, de modo que desde una edad tem­prana usted con­tribuya a con­trar­restar los pre­juicios neg­a­tivos. Esto sig­nifica crear un aula inclu­siva y cul­tural­mente sen­si­ble con libros, exhibi­ciones, cartel­eras, cel­e­bra­ciones de fes­tivi­dades, videos, cuen­tos, tex­tos, etc. y ase­gu­rarse de que esas diver­sas per­spec­ti­vas se refle­jen en el cur­rículo de sus cursos.
  • Refuerce y refleje los diver­sos aspec­tos de iden­ti­dad rep­re­sen­ta­dos en su aula y ayude a los jóvenes a decon­struir los estereoti­pos, suposi­ciones y eti­que­tas que tienen sobre diver­sos gru­pos de gente.
  • Enseñe a los estu­di­antes qué son los pre­juicios abier­tos e implíc­i­tos y busque su par­tic­i­pación para hacer algo al respecto proac­ti­va­mente.

 

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