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October 15, 2014 0

The Shepard-Byrd Hate Crimes Prevention Act: Five Years Later

The Matthew Shep­ard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Pre­ven­tion Act (HCPA), enacted into law on Octo­ber 28, 2009, is the most impor­tant, com­pre­hen­sive, and inclu­sive fed­eral hate crime enforce­ment law passed in the past 40 years.Matthew_Shepard_and_James_Byrd,_Jr._Hate_Crimes_Prevention_Act

The HCPA encour­ages part­ner­ships between state and fed­eral law enforce­ment offi­cials to more effec­tively address hate vio­lence, and pro­vides expanded author­ity for fed­eral hate crime inves­ti­ga­tions and pros­e­cu­tions when local author­i­ties are unwill­ing or unable to act.  Impor­tantly, the HCPA adds sex­ual ori­en­ta­tion, gen­der, gen­der iden­tity and dis­abil­ity to the groups which pre­vi­ously had fed­eral pro­tec­tion against hate crimes – race, color, reli­gion and national origin.

For more than a dozen years, the Anti-Defamation League led a broad coali­tion of civil rights, reli­gious, edu­ca­tional, pro­fes­sional, law enforce­ment, and civic orga­ni­za­tions advo­cat­ing for the HCPA. The leg­is­la­tion was stalled by fierce oppo­si­tion from some con­ser­v­a­tive orga­ni­za­tions — and, for eight years, by Pres­i­dent George W. Bush — in large part because it pro­vided new author­ity for the FBI and the Jus­tice Depart­ment to inves­ti­gate and pros­e­cute cases in which mem­bers of LGBT com­mu­ni­ties were tar­geted for vio­lence.  Ener­getic sup­port by Pres­i­dent Barack Obama and Attor­ney Gen­eral Eric H. Holder, Jr.  was essen­tial to achiev­ing final pas­sage of the measure.

The HCPA has proven to be a valu­able tool for fed­eral pros­e­cu­tors.  The Depart­ment of Jus­tice has brought more than two dozen cases over the past five years – and has suc­cess­fully defended the con­sti­tu­tion­al­ity of the Act against sev­eral con­sti­tu­tional chal­lenges.

Enact­ment of the HCPA also sparked a wel­come round of police train­ing and out­reach – and the devel­op­ment of a num­ber of sig­nif­i­cant new hate crime train­ing and pre­ven­tion resources, includ­ing an updated Hate Crime Model Pol­icy pre­pared by the Inter­na­tional Asso­ci­a­tion of Chiefs of Police.

Yet, much work remains to be done.  Hate crimes remain a seri­ous national prob­lem. In 2012 (accord­ing to the most recent data avail­able) the FBI doc­u­mented more than 6,500 hate crimes – almost one every hour of every day. The most fre­quent were moti­vated by race, fol­lowed by reli­gion and sex­ual ori­en­ta­tion.  Of the crime moti­vated by reli­gion, more than 60 per­cent tar­geted Jews or Jew­ish institutions.

Unfor­tu­nately, more than 90 cities with pop­u­la­tions over 100,000 either did not par­tic­i­pate in the FBI 2012 data col­lec­tion pro­gram or affir­ma­tively reported zero (0) hate crimes. That is unac­cept­able. As FBI Direc­tor James B. Comey said in remarks to the 2014 ADL Lead­er­ship Sum­mit, “We must con­tinue to impress upon our state and local coun­ter­parts in every juris­dic­tion the need to track and report hate crime. It is not some­thing we can ignore or sweep under the rug.”

The fifth anniver­sary of the HCPA pro­vides an impor­tant teach­able moment.  It is a fit­ting occa­sion for advo­cates, the Obama Admin­is­tra­tion, and Con­gress to pro­mote aware­ness of the HCPA, to report on the progress our nation has made in pre­vent­ing hate vio­lence, and to reded­i­cate our­selves to effec­tively respond­ing to bias crimes when they occur.

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April 16, 2014 0

Overland Park Shooting Suspect Admired “Lone Wolf” Killers

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Glenn Miller on Joseph Paul Franklin

Fol­low­ing deadly shoot­ings at Jew­ish insti­tu­tions in Over­land Park, Kansas, on April 13, 2014, Over­land Park police soon arrested a sus­pect, Fra­zier Glenn Cross (more com­monly known as Fra­zier Glenn Miller or sim­ply Glenn Miller). A new ADL report reveals dis­turb­ing new details about his recent activities.

Miller is a long-time white suprema­cist whose extrem­ist career spans decades.   In recent years, Miller was active on the white suprema­cist dis­cus­sion forum Van­guard News Net­work (VNN), mak­ing over 12,000 posts to that site.  He expounded racist and anti-Semitic views on a vari­ety of sub­jects, but dur­ing 2009–2013 Miller repeat­edly made posts related to one rather dis­turb­ing theme:  sup­port for lone wolf white suprema­cists who had com­mit­ted vio­lent acts.

One lone wolf ter­ror­ist Miller admired was James Von Brunn, the 88-year-old white suprema­cist who opened fire at the U.S. Holo­caust Memo­r­ial Museum in June 2009, killing a secu­rity guard.  Miller also approved of Wade Michael Page, the white suprema­cist who embarked upon a deadly shoot­ing spree at a Sikh tem­ple in Wis­con­sin in 2012.  “Many thou­sands of would-be mud [i.e., non-white] immigrants…will decide not to come [after Page’s attack],” Miller wrote shortly there­after.  “Is that good or bad for white folks?  See?”

Another white suprema­cist mur­derer Miller admired was Keith Luke.  In early 2009, Luke embarked upon a mur­der­ous ram­page in Brock­ton, Mass­a­chu­setts, killing two West African immi­grants and shoot­ing and rap­ing a third.  Luke allegedly planned to attack a syn­a­gogue that evening, but police caught up to him before he could carry out the final act of his spree.  In early 2010, Miller described Luke as “a super coura­geous young white man with the guts to act, as opposed to yel­low cyber-space [white nation­al­ists] who only type, anonymously.”

When Nor­we­gian extrem­ist Anders Behring Breivik com­mit­ted bomb­ings and shoot­ings in July 2011 that killed 77 peo­ple, mostly chil­dren, Miller imag­ined an Amer­i­can equiv­a­lent.  “If some enter­pris­ing Amer­i­can fel­low went to a youth camp in the Catskills, Camp David, or Martha’s Vine­yard,” he wrote on the VNN forum that same month, “and ‘sprayed’ some young’uns belong to our immigrant-loving JOG [Jewish-Occupied Gov­ern­ment], I dare say I might not lose a whole lot of sleep…I just might sleep even bet­ter than my norm, pos­si­bly with a wide grin on my face.”

How­ever, if there was one mur­derer whom Miller par­tic­u­larly looked up to, it was Joseph Paul Franklin, the white suprema­cist ser­ial killer and death row inmate who in the 1970s had­com­mit­ted a num­ber of mur­ders and bomb­ings against African-Americans, Jews, and interracialcouples.

In August 2009, Miller pro­claimed that Franklin was “one hell of a [white nation­al­ist].”  Miller­soon actively urged other white suprema­cists to sup­port Franklin—whom he dubbed a “martyr”—by writ­ing him, send­ing him money, and other mea­sures (includ­ing brib­ing guards).  In early 2010, Miller announced on the VNN forum that he had received a let­ter from Franklin, “this liv­ing [white nation­al­ist] legend.”

By Sep­tem­ber 2013, just months before Franklin’s sched­uled exe­cu­tion date, Miller and Franklin had estab­lished a rela­tion­ship, with Franklin mak­ing reg­u­lar phone calls to Miller.   Miller ener­get­i­cally tried to raise money for Franklin and to pro­mote his rep­u­ta­tion.  Franklin, he claimed in a Sep­tem­ber 29 post­ing to VNN, was “the most coura­geous Amer­i­can war­rior for our race in our life­time.”  Two days later, Miller called Franklin, “a lone wolf hero.”

Miller even tried to put him­self into Franklin’s head when describ­ing some of Franklin’s vio­lent actions:  “This one in one-hundred-million white man, in total self con­trol, cool and con­fi­dent in him­self and his Aryan abil­i­ties, does not run away to safety.  No, no, no.  He calmly pulls over, con­fronts the n—–, and blows his black ass away, and the white assed, n—–loving bitch, too, AFTER rel­ish­ing, up close and per­sonal, the ter­ror in their eyes.  And then, and only then, he calmly dri­ves away while plan­ning his next hit.”  For a select few, Miller said in a dif­fer­ent post­ing, “it’s what makes life worth living.”

On Novem­ber 20, fol­low­ing Franklin’s exe­cu­tion, Miller announced his death, then pro­claimed that “Joseph Paul Franklin, mar­tyr, is born and will live for­ever in the hearts and minds of strong, loyal white men, women, and youth.  Hail Joseph Paul Franklin!!!”

Five months later, Fra­zier Glenn Miller allegedly embarked upon his own killing spree in Over­land Park, Kansas.

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April 14, 2014 4

Overland Park Shooting Suspect Has Long White Supremacist History

Update — April 15: (ADL Report) Fra­zier Glenn Miller’s Vio­lent Come­back: Attack Fol­lows Years of Attempts to Reestab­lish Suprema­cist Credentials

Police in Over­land Park, Kansas, arrested a sus­pect on April 13 in the shoot­ing deaths of three indi­vid­u­als at a Jew­ish com­mu­nity cen­ter and a Jew­ish assisted liv­ing facil­ity ear­lier that day. The sus­pect, iden­ti­fied by police as Fra­zier Cross, was con­firmed by the Anti-Defamation League to be Fra­zier Glenn Miller (or sim­ply Glenn Miller), a white suprema­cist from south­west Mis­souri with a career in hatred and white supremacy that has spanned more than three decades.frazier-glenn-miller-kansas-jewish-shooting

In the early 1980s, Glenn Miller was one of the more noto­ri­ous white suprema­cists in the United States, but he even­tu­ally ran afoul of both the fed­eral gov­ern­ment and mem­bers of his own move­ment and has spent most of the last decade at the periph­ery of the white suprema­cist movement—no less rad­i­cal but far less able to influ­ence others.

Miller, orig­i­nally from North Car­olina, began his career as a neo-Nazi in the mid-1970s, but soon switched to the Ku Klux Klan. He was present at an infa­mous shoot­ing of left-wing activists by white suprema­cists in Greens­boro in 1979 that left five dead, but was never charged with a crime.

By 1980, Miller had formed his own Klan group, the Car­olina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (later changed to the White Patriot Party), a large regional Klan group that drew noto­ri­ety for its para­mil­i­tary train­ing exer­cises. Mem­bers of the group com­mit­ted sev­eral hate crimes against African-Americans dur­ing the decade, while its second-in-command was con­victed of a plot to pur­chase stolen weapons, osten­si­bly to tar­get a civil rights orga­ni­za­tion. Dur­ing this period, Miller was one of the more noto­ri­ous white suprema­cists in the United States.

The activ­i­ties of Miller and his group even­tu­ally led to a fed­eral court order pro­hibit­ing its para­mil­i­tary train­ing. Rather than obey the order, Miller went under­ground with sev­eral fol­low­ers in 1987 after issu­ing a “Dec­la­ra­tion of War” that called for the “blood of our ene­mies [to] flood the streets.” Fed­eral agents soon arrested Miller hid­ing out in the Ozarks in Mis­souri on charges related to his “Dec­la­ra­tion” and explo­sives violations.

Miller even­tu­ally pleaded guilty to pos­ses­sion of a hand grenade and received a five-year sen­tence. He also agreed to tes­tify against other promi­nent white suprema­cists in a sedi­tion trial in Arkansas in 1988—this lat­ter deci­sion for­ever earned him the enmity of the major­ity of the white suprema­cist move­ment, which now con­sid­ered him a trai­tor to the movement.

After get­ting out of prison in 1990, Miller moved to Iowa (later to Mis­souri) and became a truck dri­ver. Largely ostra­cized by white suprema­cists, he laid low until the end of the decade, when he self-published his auto­bi­og­ra­phy (A White Man Speaks Out). This marked a return to activism; by the early 2000s, Miller began pur­chas­ing adver­tis­ing space in local news­pa­pers in Mis­souri for racist and anti-Semitic screeds, fol­lowed by his own attempts to pub­lish a “white-friendly” news­pa­per called The European-American.

In 2004, Miller allied with fel­low Mis­souri white suprema­cist Alex Lin­der to pro­duce a more grandiose white suprema­cist news­pa­per that they dubbed The Aryan Alter­na­tive. Only a cou­ple of issues were ever pub­lished, but they were printed in large num­bers, which were dis­trib­uted by var­i­ous white suprema­cists for some years. Miller also tried run­ning for office, quite unsuc­cess­fully, receiv­ing only two votes in his 2010 attempt at a U.S. Sen­ate seat in Missouri.

Through­out the 2000s, Miller actively pro­moted his racist and anti-Semitic views on-line, but remained ham­pered by the hos­til­ity with which most of the white suprema­cist move­ment con­tin­ued to view him. In the years prior to the Over­land Park attacks, Miller was a peren­nial but periph­eral fig­ure within the world of white supremacy.

Related Mate­ri­als:

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