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August 12, 2015 0

From Charleston to Chattanooga: The Face of Terror in America

By Oren Segal and Mark Pit­cav­age
Direc­tors of the Anti-Defamation League’s Cen­ter on Extremism

Ter­ror­ism is some­times referred to as the “face­less enemy,” but it has hardly been face­less in the United States this sum­mer.  Too many peo­ple have emerged from the shad­ows to inflict death and suffering.

The parade of vio­lence has seemed unend­ing, from Elton Simp­son and Nadir Soofi, who attacked police offi­cers pro­vid­ing secu­rity for the so-called “Muham­mad Art Exhibit” in Texas in May, to John Houser, the Hitler-admiring man obsessed with the moral decay of Amer­ica who recently opened fire at a Louisiana movie the­ater show­ing the movie Train­wreck.

Of the var­i­ous killers and would-be killers this sum­mer, two stand out.  The first is Dylann Storm Roof, the white suprema­cist who allegedly con­fessed to the June mas­sacre at the Emanuel AME Church in Charleston, South Car­olina, that left nine African-Americans dead.dylann-storm-roof-gun-confederate-flag-600

The sec­ond is Muham­mad Youssef Abdu­lazeez, who in July engaged in a shoot­ing spree tar­get­ing a Chat­tanooga mil­i­tary recruit­ing cen­ter and a nearby naval reserve cen­ter.  Abdu­lazeez, who may have been inspired by rad­i­cal Mus­lim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki, killed five people—all mil­i­tary personnel—before being killed by police.

In many ways, Roof and Abdu­lazeez per­son­ify America’s ter­ror­ist threat; they are the faces of the “face­less enemy.”  Most obvi­ously, each rep­re­sents a major source of ter­ror­ism.  Roof was a white suprema­cist who allegedly hoped to start a “race war” in which whites would pre­vail.  White suprema­cists have for decades been the most pro­lific source of domes­tic extremist-related lethal vio­lence.  Along with the other main seg­ment of the extreme right, anti-government mili­tia groups and sov­er­eign cit­i­zens, they are respon­si­ble for the great major­ity of extremist-related deaths in the U.S.

Abdu­lazeez, on whom there is less infor­ma­tion regard­ing moti­va­tion, may well have latched onto the ideas of al-Awlaki—including his encour­age­ment of attacks on mil­i­tary targets—as a way to atone for some of his per­sonal demons, includ­ing drugs and alco­hol.  Domes­tic Islamic extrem­ists have in recent years attempted or con­ducted a large num­ber of ter­ror­ist plots, con­spir­a­cies and acts, despite being fewer in num­ber than right-wing extremists.

Both men also chose tar­gets typ­i­cal of their move­ments.  For Abdu­lazeez, it was the mil­i­tary; here he fol­lowed in the foot­steps of Abdul­hakim Mujahid Muham­mad, who killed a sol­dier at a recruit­ing cen­ter in Lit­tle Rock, Arkansas, in 2009, and Nidal Malik Has­san, who killed 13 peo­ple at Fort Hood, Texas, that same year.  Other Islamic extrem­ists have also recently plot­ted attacks against mil­i­tary tar­gets in the U.S., though with­out success.mohammad-youssef-abdulazeez

Roof went on a shoot­ing ram­page against African-Americans.  Sprees of vio­lence against racial, eth­nic, or reli­gious minori­ties are a com­mon type of white suprema­cist ter­ror­ism.  In recent years, there have been a num­ber of such episodes, includ­ing Fra­zier Glenn Miller’s attacks on Jew­ish insti­tu­tions in Over­land Park, Kansas, in 2014; Wade Michael Page’s ram­page at a Sikh tem­ple in Oak Creek, Wis­con­sin, in 2012, and Keith Luke’s attacks on African immi­grants in Brock­ton, Mass­a­chu­setts, in 2009.

Both Roof and Abdu­lazeez used firearms for their attacks, which is also typ­i­cal of Amer­i­can ter­ror­ism.  Although the pub­lic usu­ally thinks of ter­ror­ism in terms of bombs, ter­ror­ists like Ted Kaczyn­ski and the Boston Marathon bombers are rare in Amer­ica.  The vast major­ity of extremist-related mur­ders involve guns—easy to acquire, sim­ple to use, and deadly.  This is why Charleston and Chat­tanooga num­ber among the 10 dead­liest extremist-related attacks of the past 50 years.  Indeed, with the excep­tion of the Okla­homa City bomb­ing, the “top 10” attacks all involved firearms.

Abdu­lazeez and Roof were both young men, dis­af­fected, fac­ing per­sonal stresses of dif­fer­ent kinds (Abdu­lazeez also suf­fered from men­tal ill­ness).  Although ter­ror­ism knows no age limits—Nidal Hasan was 39 at the time of his Fort Hood ram­page, while white suprema­cist James Von Brunn, who attacked the U.S. Holo­caust Memo­r­ial Museum in 2009, was in his late 80s—many of the attacks and plots in recent years by both Islamic and right-wing extrem­ists have been com­mit­ted by men in their mid-20s or younger.

Like Abdu­lazeez and Roof, a num­ber of these extrem­ists com­mit­ted their attacks as lone wolves, unat­tached to any par­tic­u­lar group.  Over­all, the num­ber of lethal lone wolf attacks in the past two decades has been fairly low, num­ber­ing only a few dozen, but in recent years, lone wolves seem to have been emerg­ing at a faster rate.  One rea­son may be the increas­ing role played by the Inter­net in facil­i­tat­ing self-radicalization.  It was through the Inter­net that Roof edu­cated him­self in white supremacy; it was via the Inter­net that Abdu­lazeez down­loaded record­ings of al-Awlaki.

Here one can see a sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence between right-wing extrem­ists and domes­tic Islamic rad­i­cals.  While they can both eas­ily immerse them­selves in a sea of on-line pro­pa­ganda designed to instill and rein­force extreme views, right-wing extrem­ist Inter­net sources are pri­mar­ily based in the United States and, there­fore, must watch what they say.  White suprema­cists who openly use the Inter­net to encour­age vio­lence and ter­ror­ism open them­selves up to crim­i­nal inves­ti­ga­tion and, if vio­lence occurs, pos­si­ble civil lia­bil­ity; as a result, their encour­age­ment of vio­lence is often more implicit than explicit.

Domes­tic Islamic extrem­ists, in con­trast, receive most of their rad­i­cal­iz­ing mes­sages from abroad, from ter­ror­ist groups and like-minded sup­port­ers who are freer to use the Inter­net to call for vio­lence and ter­ror­ism within the U.S.  Pro­pa­ganda from Al Qaeda in the Ara­bian Penin­sula, for exam­ple, was an inspi­ra­tion for the Boston Marathon bomb­ing.  In the past two years, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has taken such tac­tics to a new level alto­gether, employ­ing a vir­tual army of on-line recruiters who use social media plat­forms to reach and rad­i­cal­ize sus­cep­ti­ble indi­vid­u­als across the globe.  Seek­ing to instill a deep sense of com­mu­nity and pur­pose, ISIS sup­port­ers encour­age Amer­i­cans to come to the Mid­dle East to help it fight its wars—many of the 80+ U.S. res­i­dents linked to Islamic extrem­ist activ­ity since 2014 have made such attempts. But ISIS also urges peo­ple to launch attacks in the U.S.

Roof and Abdu­lazeez were both cold-blooded killers.  Their attacks deeply affected the cit­i­zens of Charleston and Chat­tanooga and, indeed, the whole coun­try, though not always in the same ways.  In par­tic­u­lar, the Chat­tanooga shoot­ings, like some sim­i­lar attacks before them, stirred anti-Muslim sen­ti­ments directed at America’s entire Mus­lim com­mu­nity, a dis­turb­ing phe­nom­e­non for which there is no par­al­lel with regard to white suprema­cist attacks.

But their attacks were sim­i­lar in that they were both essen­tially futile, able to achieve lit­tle but death and mis­ery.  Indeed, the reac­tions to the attacks illus­trate just how inef­fec­tive they actu­ally were.  The Chat­tanooga attack, for exam­ple, inspired an out­pour­ing of sup­port for the U.S. mil­i­tary. The Charleston response was even more pow­er­ful.  Far from start­ing a “race war,” Roof’s slaugh­ter not only brought Charlesto­ni­ans of all races together but also resulted in a bipar­ti­san effort to remove the Con­fed­er­ate flag from the South Car­olina capitol.

Amer­i­can extrem­ists, of what­ever stripe, can hurt and even kill, but the one thing they can’t do is win.

Mr. Segal is an author­ity on Islamic extrem­ism and ter­ror­ism in the United States; Dr. Pit­cav­age is an expert on right-wing extrem­ism and ter­ror­ism in the United States.

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August 5, 2015 0

New AQAP Video Calls for Attacks Against the U.S.

AQAP propaganda video calls for attacks against U.S.

AQAP pro­pa­ganda video calls for attacks against U.S.

Al Qaeda in the Ara­bian Penin­sula (AQAP) has released a new video prais­ing recent ter­ror attacks in West­ern coun­tries and call­ing for addi­tional attacks against the U.S. The video, which demon­strates Al Qaeda’s con­tin­ued com­mit­ment to attacks against the West, comes as pol­i­cy­mak­ers con­tinue to debate whether the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Al Qaeda serves as a greater threat to domes­tic security.

In the video, AQAP offi­cial Abu al-Miqdad al Kindi, who is the speaker through­out the video, calls for attacks against Amer­ica, stat­ing, “Oh Mujahideen (fight­ers) in every cor­ner of the world, I urge you on America…direct your spears towards them.” He also urges view­ers to read Inspire mag­a­zine, AQAP’s English-language pro­pa­ganda mag­a­zine, for instruc­tions, stating:

“And to the war­riors of Lone Jihad, may Allah bless and guide your efforts….Set your goals with pre­ci­sion and focus your strikes on the enemy’s joints. And after seek­ing help from Allah, seek guid­ance and instruc­tion from Inspire Mag­a­zine. For indeed it presents prac­ti­cal and effi­cient guid­ance. It places impor­tant direc­tions in assur­ing the suc­cess of lone Jihad in achiev­ing planned goals.”

In the video, Al-Kindi specif­i­cally praises attacks in response to draw­ings depict­ing Muham­mad, includ­ing the attack against the Char­lie Hebdo mag­a­zine in Paris (whose per­pe­tra­tors had allegedly trained with AQAP) and the attack against a Gar­land, TX ‘Draw Moham­mad con­test,’ (whose per­pe­tra­tors had allegedly been inspired by ISIS).

He also describes the recent shoot­ing at mil­i­tary insti­tu­tions in Chat­tanooga, Ten­nessee, as “a blessed jihadi oper­a­tion,” which he says demon­strates that, “lone jihad has proven to be and will always prove to be a strate­gic weapon suc­cess­fully hit­ting and pen­e­trat­ing the enemy’s fort.”

Al-Kindi also argues that leg­is­la­tion aimed at pre­vent­ing Holo­caust denial and anti-Semitism in Euro­pean coun­tries legit­i­mates vio­lent attacks against West­ern tar­gets per­ceived as defam­ing Islam and Muham­mad; in so doing, it also appears to val­i­date Holo­caust revisionism:

Amer­ica, France, and other Kufr nations are the ones who assist and make leg­is­la­tions (sic) to pro­tect those who abuse Islam and the Prophets, the same nations which leg­is­late and pun­ish whomever ques­tions the Holo­caust but rather any­one who ques­tions the authen­tic­ity of the sta­tis­tics. It does not mat­ter if the crit­i­cism came from a researcher or a his­to­rian. These are the same nations led by Amer­ica, imple­ment­ing laws that will empower them to place the world under watch in order to iden­tify who is ‘anti-Semitic’ (anti-Semitism laws) which are not bounded by their free­dom of expres­sion. And as you put lim­its to free­dom of expres­sion and pun­ish whomever goes against them, it is upon us to pun­ish who­ever trans­gresses our bound­aries and sanctities.”

The video was released this morn­ing on the Twit­ter feed asso­ci­ated with Al Male­hem Media, the media wing of AQAP. The Twit­ter account has been active since April and has over 6,000 followers.

Only three of the 58 U.S. res­i­dents linked to ter­ror­ism in 2015 appear to have been inspired to act by or on behalf of Al Qaeda; the remain­ing 55 allegedly acted in sup­port of ISIS, although a num­ber of them had allegedly read or watched both Al Qaeda and ISIS propaganda.

This video was released less than a week after a let­ter attrib­uted to AQAP bomb-maker Ibrahim Has­san al-Asiri that also called for attacks on the U.S. was posted to Twitter.

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July 23, 2015 5

Help Take ISIS Videos Off WordPress

Ansar Khilafah promotes terrorist propaganda on WordPress

Screen­shot from the site

The Anti-Defamation League con­tacted Word­Press about a web­site it hosts that fea­tures hun­dreds of Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (ISIS) pro­pa­ganda videos, state­ments and publications.

This par­tic­u­lar web­site includes pro­pa­ganda released by ISIS and other ter­ror groups in Eng­lish, French, Turk­ish, Dutch, Ara­bic and other lan­guages. Among the hun­dreds of items on the site are behead­ing and exe­cu­tion videos, as well as videos and arti­cles encour­ag­ing West­ern­ers to travel to join ISIS or to com­mit attacks on its behalf in their home countries.

Help us urge Word­Press to remove this web­site from its plat­form. Copy this URL https://ansarkhilafah.wordpress.com and paste it into the Word­Press com­plaint form. Mark it as “abu­sive” and tell Word­Press that it’s NOT OK to sup­port ter­ror­ist content.

The pro­pa­ganda made avail­able by this web­site comes from var­i­ous ISIS media out­lets, includ­ing Al Hayat Media, Al Furqan Media, Al-I’tisam Media and Ajnad Media. The site also has a sec­tion for ISIS’ English-language mag­a­zine Dabiq.

Ansar Khilafah blog on WordPress features ISIS propaganda

Screen­shot from the site

Online repos­i­to­ries of ter­ror­ist pro­pa­ganda are not new. In Feb­ru­ary 2015, an ISIS sup­porter cre­ated a web­site called IS-Tube. Sim­i­lar to the Word­Press site, IS-Tube pro­vided access to an archive of search­able ISIS pro­pa­ganda videos. IS-Tube was hosted on a Google-owned IP bloc, and Google quickly removed the site after ADL noti­fied the com­pany of its pres­ence. Both IS-Tube and the Word­Press site appear to have orig­i­nated in the Netherlands.

In July 2014, ISIS attempted to move its online pres­ence away from Twit­ter – where its accounts were reg­u­larly shut down – to alter­nate social media plat­forms Frien­dica and Quit­ter. ADL pub­li­cized the move and Frien­dica and Quit­ter quickly removed all ISIS pres­ence from their platforms.

If you come across such con­tent on other plat­forms, the ADL’s Cyber-Safety Action Guide pro­vides resources on flag­ging con­tent directly with host companies.

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