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October 7, 2015 0

ADL Marks the 30th Anniversary of the Murder of Leon Klinghoffer

The Achille Lauro cruise ship hijacked by terrorists

The Achille Lauro cruise ship hijacked by terrorists

Tomor­row – Octo­ber 8, 2015 – marks the thir­ti­eth anniver­sary of the death of Leon Klinghoffer.

Leon Kling­hof­fer was mur­dered on Octo­ber 8, 1985 when ter­ror­ists asso­ci­ated with the Pales­tin­ian Lib­er­a­tion Front hijacked the cruise ship the Achille Lauro on which he was trav­el­ing in cel­e­bra­tion of his 36th wed­ding anniver­sary. Kling­hof­fer, who was wheel­chair bound, was shot in the head by ter­ror­ists, who then threw him overboard.

The ter­ror­ists who hijacked the Achille Lauro sin­gled out the Jew­ish pas­sen­gers on the ship. Thirty years later, ter­ror­ism remains inex­tri­ca­bly bound with anti-Semitism. ADL recently released a new report on the link between ter­ror­ism and anti-Semitism titled Anti-Semitism: A Pil­lar of Islamic Extrem­ist Ide­ol­ogy.

The mur­der of Leon Kling­hof­fer brought the deadly real­ity of ter­ror­ism home to Jews and Amer­i­cans. It was not only a tragedy, but also a wake-up call.

The attack was per­son­ally dev­as­tat­ing to the fam­ily of Leon Kling­hof­fer but, to their last­ing credit, his daugh­ters Lisa and Ilsa were deter­mined to ensure that their father did not die in vain. Within months of the attack, they joined with the ADL to found the Leon and Mar­i­lyn Kling­hof­fer Memo­r­ial Foun­da­tion of the Anti-Defamation League, which serves to edu­cate about ter­ror­ism and its vic­tims to this day.

ADL will be par­tic­i­pat­ing in a panel com­mem­o­rat­ing the anniver­sary of the Achille Lauro tragedy on Octo­ber 8 at 8:30 AM. The panel, Com­bat­ing Ter­ror­ism through Amer­i­can Law: On the Occa­sion of the 30th Anniver­sary of the Mur­der of Leon Kling­hof­fer, is pre­sented by the Cen­ter for Jew­ish His­tory and the Amer­i­can Jew­ish His­tor­i­cal Society.

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September 21, 2015 0

New AQAP Inspire Magazine Encourages Lone Wolf Attacks

Issue 14 of AQAP's Inspire Magazine

Issue 14 of AQAP’s Inspire Magazine

The 14th issue of InspireAl Qaeda in the Ara­bian Penin­sula (AQAP)’s Eng­lish lan­guage mag­a­zine, released on Sep­tem­ber 9 to coin­cide with the anniver­sary of the 9/11 attacks, incites Amer­i­cans and oth­ers liv­ing in the West to per­pe­trate lone-wolf attacks.“We at Inspire, and in the cause of the events of 9/11 encour­age the Mus­lims in the West to join the Lone Jihad car­a­van,” reads the Editor’s Let­ter at the start of the mag­a­zine, “the car­a­van that has and always will con­tinue to trou­ble and bring night­mares to the west (sic).”

As in pre­vi­ous issues of Inspire, the mag­a­zine uses anti-Semitism to mobi­lize the anger and sup­port needed to encour­age indi­vid­u­als to sus­tain AQAP and per­pe­trate attacks. ADL recently pub­lished a new report on anti-Semitism in Islamic extrem­ist pro­pa­ganda.

One arti­cle in the new issue states that the 9/11 attack “in con­text [was] a gen­eral defense on our Ummah [Mus­lim com­mu­nity], that has been assaulted by the Jews and sup­ported by Amer­ica.” Sim­i­larly, another arti­cle stated that ter­ror­ism “give[s] joy and hap­pi­ness to…all those hurt by Amer­ica, bearer of evil, oppres­sion and the pro­tec­tor of the Jews.”

A third arti­cle, titled “The Cor­ner,” focused on anti-Israel sen­ti­ments as a means to rile anger against the U.S. The arti­cle began by stat­ing that, “Track­ing AIPAC annual events, one gets a sense of a spir­i­tual bond between Amer­ica and Israel.” It went on to claim that “In all AIPAC meet­ings, America’s tone towards Israel has been of blind sup­port. Reas­sur­ing the Jews that what­ever it takes or what­ever crime they com­mit, Amer­ica will always back them.”

Rehash­ing claims made in an August AQAP video that called for attacks on the U.S., one arti­cle says that “There is no stronger evi­dence than the issue of the Holo­caust in which there is no room for free­dom of expres­sion or ideas,” imply­ing that if West­ern free speech allows for crit­i­cism of Islam, the West must also encour­age dele­git­imiza­tion of the Holo­caust to avoid hypocrisy.

This issue of Inspire also attempted to har­ness pop­u­lar anger about injus­tices against African Amer­i­cans in the U.S., equat­ing “Amer­i­can oppres­sion towards the Blacks today” to “oppression…exercised against the Mus­lims today.” The arti­cle calls on African Amer­i­cans to “review your actions and to take a stand against these crimes” by con­demn­ing the actions of the U.S. and the State of Israel and then sug­gests that they, too, com­mit acts of ter­ror­ism as described in the mag­a­zine: “we at Inspire bring to you mil­i­tary con­sul­ta­tion, one may refer back to the pre­vi­ous issues to find appro­pri­ate mil­i­tary ideas.”

Dur­ing the protests in Fer­gu­son, Mis­souri, ter­ror sup­port­ers (and par­tic­u­larly sup­port­ers of ISIS, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) reg­u­larly shared state­ments online attempt­ing to cap­i­tal­ize on the unrest and pro­mote their ver­sion of Islam as bet­ter than and more equal­ity than Amer­i­can democ­racy. There is no rea­son to believe that mem­bers of the African Amer­i­can com­mu­nity or oth­ers sym­pa­thetic to the injus­tices in the U.S. crim­i­nal sys­tem took those mes­sages seri­ously, as there is no rea­son to believe they will take these mes­sages from AQAP seriously.

Other arti­cles and graph­ics in the mag­a­zine praise the 9/11 attacks, the Boston Marathon bomb­ing and the Char­lie Hebdo attack.

Inspire has been par­tic­u­larly noto­ri­ous for its pro­vi­sion of bomb-making instruc­tions. The 14th   issue pro­vides direc­tions for build­ing home­made pipe-bombs to be used in assas­si­na­tion attempts. Specif­i­cally, the mag­a­zine advises tar­get­ing eco­nom­i­cally influ­en­tial Amer­i­cans includ­ing Ben Shalom Bar­nanek (sic), Robert James Shiller, Bill Gates, War­ren Buf­fet, Larry Joseph, Char­lie and David Koch, Sam Wal­ton, Shel­don Adel­son, and Michael Bloomberg. As if issu­ing a ran­som note, the arti­cle sug­gests that “whoso­ever wants to secure him­self and wealth” should remove their money from U.S. banks, invest their wealth out­side U.S. soil and “declare via media that they are far from Amer­i­can poli­cies towards Mus­lim (sic) and America’s sup­port for Israel.

Inspire is per­haps the most noto­ri­ous Al Qaeda pro­pa­ganda vehi­cle. It has played a role in the rad­i­cal­iza­tion of mul­ti­ple domes­tic extrem­ists, includ­ing the Tsar­naev broth­ers of the Boston Marathon bomb­ing), Jose Pimentel, who attempted a bomb­ing in New York, and Abdel Daoud, who attempted a bomb­ing in Chicago.

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August 12, 2015 0

From Charleston to Chattanooga: The Face of Terror in America

By Oren Segal and Mark Pit­cav­age
Direc­tors of the Anti-Defamation League’s Cen­ter on Extremism

Ter­ror­ism is some­times referred to as the “face­less enemy,” but it has hardly been face­less in the United States this sum­mer.  Too many peo­ple have emerged from the shad­ows to inflict death and suffering.

The parade of vio­lence has seemed unend­ing, from Elton Simp­son and Nadir Soofi, who attacked police offi­cers pro­vid­ing secu­rity for the so-called “Muham­mad Art Exhibit” in Texas in May, to John Houser, the Hitler-admiring man obsessed with the moral decay of Amer­ica who recently opened fire at a Louisiana movie the­ater show­ing the movie Train­wreck.

Of the var­i­ous killers and would-be killers this sum­mer, two stand out.  The first is Dylann Storm Roof, the white suprema­cist who allegedly con­fessed to the June mas­sacre at the Emanuel AME Church in Charleston, South Car­olina, that left nine African-Americans dead.dylann-storm-roof-gun-confederate-flag-600

The sec­ond is Muham­mad Youssef Abdu­lazeez, who in July engaged in a shoot­ing spree tar­get­ing a Chat­tanooga mil­i­tary recruit­ing cen­ter and a nearby naval reserve cen­ter.  Abdu­lazeez, who may have been inspired by rad­i­cal Mus­lim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki, killed five people—all mil­i­tary personnel—before being killed by police.

In many ways, Roof and Abdu­lazeez per­son­ify America’s ter­ror­ist threat; they are the faces of the “face­less enemy.”  Most obvi­ously, each rep­re­sents a major source of ter­ror­ism.  Roof was a white suprema­cist who allegedly hoped to start a “race war” in which whites would pre­vail.  White suprema­cists have for decades been the most pro­lific source of domes­tic extremist-related lethal vio­lence.  Along with the other main seg­ment of the extreme right, anti-government mili­tia groups and sov­er­eign cit­i­zens, they are respon­si­ble for the great major­ity of extremist-related deaths in the U.S.

Abdu­lazeez, on whom there is less infor­ma­tion regard­ing moti­va­tion, may well have latched onto the ideas of al-Awlaki—including his encour­age­ment of attacks on mil­i­tary targets—as a way to atone for some of his per­sonal demons, includ­ing drugs and alco­hol.  Domes­tic Islamic extrem­ists have in recent years attempted or con­ducted a large num­ber of ter­ror­ist plots, con­spir­a­cies and acts, despite being fewer in num­ber than right-wing extremists.

Both men also chose tar­gets typ­i­cal of their move­ments.  For Abdu­lazeez, it was the mil­i­tary; here he fol­lowed in the foot­steps of Abdul­hakim Mujahid Muham­mad, who killed a sol­dier at a recruit­ing cen­ter in Lit­tle Rock, Arkansas, in 2009, and Nidal Malik Has­san, who killed 13 peo­ple at Fort Hood, Texas, that same year.  Other Islamic extrem­ists have also recently plot­ted attacks against mil­i­tary tar­gets in the U.S., though with­out success.mohammad-youssef-abdulazeez

Roof went on a shoot­ing ram­page against African-Americans.  Sprees of vio­lence against racial, eth­nic, or reli­gious minori­ties are a com­mon type of white suprema­cist ter­ror­ism.  In recent years, there have been a num­ber of such episodes, includ­ing Fra­zier Glenn Miller’s attacks on Jew­ish insti­tu­tions in Over­land Park, Kansas, in 2014; Wade Michael Page’s ram­page at a Sikh tem­ple in Oak Creek, Wis­con­sin, in 2012, and Keith Luke’s attacks on African immi­grants in Brock­ton, Mass­a­chu­setts, in 2009.

Both Roof and Abdu­lazeez used firearms for their attacks, which is also typ­i­cal of Amer­i­can ter­ror­ism.  Although the pub­lic usu­ally thinks of ter­ror­ism in terms of bombs, ter­ror­ists like Ted Kaczyn­ski and the Boston Marathon bombers are rare in Amer­ica.  The vast major­ity of extremist-related mur­ders involve guns—easy to acquire, sim­ple to use, and deadly.  This is why Charleston and Chat­tanooga num­ber among the 10 dead­liest extremist-related attacks of the past 50 years.  Indeed, with the excep­tion of the Okla­homa City bomb­ing, the “top 10” attacks all involved firearms.

Abdu­lazeez and Roof were both young men, dis­af­fected, fac­ing per­sonal stresses of dif­fer­ent kinds (Abdu­lazeez also suf­fered from men­tal ill­ness).  Although ter­ror­ism knows no age limits—Nidal Hasan was 39 at the time of his Fort Hood ram­page, while white suprema­cist James Von Brunn, who attacked the U.S. Holo­caust Memo­r­ial Museum in 2009, was in his late 80s—many of the attacks and plots in recent years by both Islamic and right-wing extrem­ists have been com­mit­ted by men in their mid-20s or younger.

Like Abdu­lazeez and Roof, a num­ber of these extrem­ists com­mit­ted their attacks as lone wolves, unat­tached to any par­tic­u­lar group.  Over­all, the num­ber of lethal lone wolf attacks in the past two decades has been fairly low, num­ber­ing only a few dozen, but in recent years, lone wolves seem to have been emerg­ing at a faster rate.  One rea­son may be the increas­ing role played by the Inter­net in facil­i­tat­ing self-radicalization.  It was through the Inter­net that Roof edu­cated him­self in white supremacy; it was via the Inter­net that Abdu­lazeez down­loaded record­ings of al-Awlaki.

Here one can see a sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence between right-wing extrem­ists and domes­tic Islamic rad­i­cals.  While they can both eas­ily immerse them­selves in a sea of on-line pro­pa­ganda designed to instill and rein­force extreme views, right-wing extrem­ist Inter­net sources are pri­mar­ily based in the United States and, there­fore, must watch what they say.  White suprema­cists who openly use the Inter­net to encour­age vio­lence and ter­ror­ism open them­selves up to crim­i­nal inves­ti­ga­tion and, if vio­lence occurs, pos­si­ble civil lia­bil­ity; as a result, their encour­age­ment of vio­lence is often more implicit than explicit.

Domes­tic Islamic extrem­ists, in con­trast, receive most of their rad­i­cal­iz­ing mes­sages from abroad, from ter­ror­ist groups and like-minded sup­port­ers who are freer to use the Inter­net to call for vio­lence and ter­ror­ism within the U.S.  Pro­pa­ganda from Al Qaeda in the Ara­bian Penin­sula, for exam­ple, was an inspi­ra­tion for the Boston Marathon bomb­ing.  In the past two years, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has taken such tac­tics to a new level alto­gether, employ­ing a vir­tual army of on-line recruiters who use social media plat­forms to reach and rad­i­cal­ize sus­cep­ti­ble indi­vid­u­als across the globe.  Seek­ing to instill a deep sense of com­mu­nity and pur­pose, ISIS sup­port­ers encour­age Amer­i­cans to come to the Mid­dle East to help it fight its wars—many of the 80+ U.S. res­i­dents linked to Islamic extrem­ist activ­ity since 2014 have made such attempts. But ISIS also urges peo­ple to launch attacks in the U.S.

Roof and Abdu­lazeez were both cold-blooded killers.  Their attacks deeply affected the cit­i­zens of Charleston and Chat­tanooga and, indeed, the whole coun­try, though not always in the same ways.  In par­tic­u­lar, the Chat­tanooga shoot­ings, like some sim­i­lar attacks before them, stirred anti-Muslim sen­ti­ments directed at America’s entire Mus­lim com­mu­nity, a dis­turb­ing phe­nom­e­non for which there is no par­al­lel with regard to white suprema­cist attacks.

But their attacks were sim­i­lar in that they were both essen­tially futile, able to achieve lit­tle but death and mis­ery.  Indeed, the reac­tions to the attacks illus­trate just how inef­fec­tive they actu­ally were.  The Chat­tanooga attack, for exam­ple, inspired an out­pour­ing of sup­port for the U.S. mil­i­tary. The Charleston response was even more pow­er­ful.  Far from start­ing a “race war,” Roof’s slaugh­ter not only brought Charlesto­ni­ans of all races together but also resulted in a bipar­ti­san effort to remove the Con­fed­er­ate flag from the South Car­olina capitol.

Amer­i­can extrem­ists, of what­ever stripe, can hurt and even kill, but the one thing they can’t do is win.

Mr. Segal is an author­ity on Islamic extrem­ism and ter­ror­ism in the United States; Dr. Pit­cav­age is an expert on right-wing extrem­ism and ter­ror­ism in the United States.

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